THE CAT AND THE COUP
Sources (for the in-game text)
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March 20, 1951, IRAN MAJLIS PARLIMENT NATIONALIZES OIL INDUSTRY; Brits claim this is a “threat to the security of the world.”The Ayatollah Begs to Differ; the Paradox of Modern Iran, by Hooman Majd, 2008, page 234-235, “Iranians are often adroitly reminded by their leaders that when their soon-to-be-deposed prime minister Mossadeq nationalized the Iranian oil industry, in effect demanding their right to profits from their own oil, the British responded publicly, and at the UN no less, that Iran’s exercise of its right was a “threat to the security of world,” words that have been repeated by the United States in response to Iran exercising its right, haq, as far as Iranians are concerned, to produce nuclear fuel.”
The New York Times, March 9, 1951, Teheran, Iran, “Nationalizing of Oil in Iran Asked; Slain Premier, Plan's Foe, Buried; IRANIAN UNIT ASKS OIL NATIONALIZING - A Parliamentary committee voted unanimously for nationalization of the oil industry tonight, a few hours after the funeral of Premier Gen. Ali Razmara, who was assassinated yesterday because he had opposed the plan."
- The New York Times, March 25, 1951, by J. H. Carmical, “World Eyes Iran on Oil Seizure Bid - Since Anglo-Iranian is owned by British interests, with the British Government holding a majority of the stock, nationalization of the Iranian oil properties would be a severe blow to the British economy.”
May 1, 1951, Nationalist, Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh, Elected Prime Minister of Iran by Democratic MajlisA People’s History of American Empire; A Graphic Adaptation, Chapter 12: Covert Action and Reaction, page 234, 2008, by Howard Zinn, Mike Konopaki, and Paul Buhle, “On May 1, 1951 Mossadegh – an aristocrat, a nationalist, a doctor of law, and a founder of the National Front of Iran Political Party – was elected prime minister by the Iranian parliament. It was the first time a prime minister had been chosen without the shah’s approval. Mossadegh had two goals: To create a parliamentary democracy, to reduce the shah’s power, and to wrest control of Iran’s oil from the British.”
May 25, 1951, BRITISH ORDER BRIGADE TO MEDITERRANEAN; Soviet Envoy Sounds WarningThe New York Times, May 26, 1951, London, England, United Kingdom, by Clifton Daniel, “BRITISH ORDER UNIT TO MEDITERRANEAN; Parachute Brigade of 4,000 to Sail Shortly--Tension on Iran Eases in London BRITISH ORDER UNIT TO MEDITERRANEAN Mossadegh Reiterates Firm Stand Soviet Envoy Sounds Warning - About 4,000 British paratroopers, who have been held in readiness for foreign service during London's dispute with Teheran over the British oil concession in Iran, will be sent to the Mediterranean in the near future. Their destination was announced by the Ministry of Defense today.”
September 6, 1951, BRITISH BREAK OFF PARLEYS WITH IRAN; London Rules Out Any Further Negotiations with Regime Headed by MossadeghThe New York Times, September 7, 1951, London, England, United Kingdom, “BRITISH BREAK OFF PARLEYS WITH IRAN; London Rules Out Any Further Negotiations With Regime Headed by Mossadegh - Britain, surprised yesterday by the threat of an ultimatum from Iran in the oil dispute between the two countries, pulled a surprise of her own tonight; the Government abruptly broke off negotiations with Premier Mohammed Mossadegh's administration.”
October 8, 1951, MOSSADEGH APPEALS TO AMERICANS TO BACK IRAN; “Remember your own revolution against Britain.”The New York Times, October 9, 1951, United Nations, New York, “Mossadegh, Here, Appeals to Americans to Back Iran; IRAN'S PREMIER ARRIVES HERE - Premier Mohammed Mossadegh, symbol of Iran's surging nationalism, arrived in New York today and asked the American people, remembering their own revolution against Britain, to support his country's fight against what he termed British "imperialism" in Iran.”
October 23, 1951, Truman Urges Mossadegh to Settle British Oil Dispute; U.S. ASSISTANCE AVAILABLEThe New York Times, October 24, 1951, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., “Truman Urges Mossadegh To Settle British Oil Dispute; Specialists See Premier TRUMAN APPEALS TO IRANIAN CHIEF U.S. Assistance Available - Emphasizing the importance of Iran's oil to the Western world, President Truman appealed directly today to Premier Mohammed Mossadegh of Iran.”
January 7, 1952, 1951 MAN OF THE YEAR, The Iranian George WashingtonTime Magazine, January 7, 1952, 1951 MAN OF THE YEAR; Mohammed Mossadegh - He Oiled the Wheels of Chaos - The U.S. …wanted to feel sympathy toward the aspirations of Asian peoples. After all, material progress and national independence are both classic American doctrines, and the U.S. could envision itself as playing Lafayette to Asian George Washingtons. But in terms of Asian realities, … the U.S. was appalled by the facts. Just as it had recoiled from Nationalist China, crying "Corruption," so in 1951 the U.S. recoiled from the corruption, hatred, fanaticism and disorganization of the Middle East. Mossadegh, by Western standards an appalling caricature of a statesman, was a fair sample of what the West would have to work with in the Middle East. To sit back and deplore him was to run away from the issue. For a long time, relations with the Middle East would mean relations with men such as Mossadegh, some better, some much worse. The Iranian George Washington was probably born in 1879 (he fibs about his age)...
June 23, 1952, WORLD COURT ENDS IRAN OIL HEARINGS; Mossadegh Leaves for Home, Telling British Nationalizing Will Never Be RescindedThe New York Times, June 24, 1952, THE HAGUE, the Netherlands, “WORLD COURT ENDS IRAN OIL HEARINGS; Mossadegh Leaves for Home, Telling British Nationalizing Will Never Be Rescinded - With a warning to Britain to abandon hope that oil nationalization would "disappear with me," Premier Mohammed Mossadegh left for home today aboard a Dutch airliner at the close of the two-week hearing by the International Court of Justice on whether it had jurisdiction in the British-Iranian dispute.”
October 3, 1952, GEN. EISENHOWER SCORES PRESIDENT ON REDS; Says Democrats Tolerated Penetration by CommunistsThe New York Times, October 4, 1952, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A., by W. H. Lawrence, “EISENHOWER SCORES PRESIDENT ON REDS; SUPPORTS M'CARTHY; In Tour of Wisconsin, General Asserts He Backs Senator's Aims Not His Methods DENOUNCES 'VIGILANTISM' Says Administration Tolerated Penetration by Communists -- Asks Fight on 'Treason' EISENHOWER SCORES PRESIDENT ON REDS - Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower today coupled a call for the re-election of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, Wisconsin Republican, with a fierce attack upon Democratic Administrations for tolerating Communist penetration of the Government and "treason itself."
April 4, 1953, CIA approves $1,000,000 to bring about “the fall of Mossadegh."Clandestine Service History - Overthrow of Premier Mossadeq of Iran, November 1952 – August 1953, date written: March 1954, by Donald N. Wilber
- Preliminary Steps, Part I, page 3, “The Director, on April 4, 1953, approved a budget of $1,000,000 which could be used by the Tehran Station in any way that would bring about the fall of Mossadegh.”
July 19, 1953, CIA Officer Kermit Roosevelt Jr. Enters Iran at Remote Crossing; Bribes Mullahs, Military, Merchants, Majlis and the MediaCountercoup; The Struggle for the Control of Iran, 1979, by Kermit Roosevelt, page 139-140, “… on July 19, 1953, we encountered as unusually listless, stupid and semiliterate immigration-customs fellow at Khanequin. In those days U.S. passports carried, as they do not now, some brief description of any notable features of the holder. With encouragement and help from me, the guard laboriously transcribed my name as “Mr. Scar on Right Forehead.” This I found a good omen.”
- CIA Clandestine Service History - Overthrow of Premier Mossadeq of Iran, November 1952 – August 1953, date written: March 1954, by Donald N. Wilber
- Initial Operational Plan for TPAJAX, Appendix A, Secret, June 1, 1953,
- Interim Financing of Opposition: … SIS indigenous channels Iran will be used to supply funds to Zahedi
- Relations with Majlis: Important quasi-legal effort. To prepare for such effort deputies must be purchased … SIS Considers 20 deputies now not controlled must be purchased…
- Relations with Religious Leaders: …stage political demonstrations under religious cover
- Relations with Bazaar: Bazaar contacts to be used to spread anti-government rumors
- Tudeh/Iran’s Communist Party: …via black leaflets direct Tudeh not to take action … Just prior to movement CIA would give widest publicity to all favricated documents proving secret agreement between Mossaddeq and Tudeh.
- Press and Propoganda Program: Prior coup intensify anti-Mossadeq propaganda …
- … Mossadeq is leading the country into complete economic collapse… Just prior to movement CIA would give widest publicity to the evidence of illegally issued paper money. CIA might have capability to print masses excellent imitation currency which would be overprinted with this message.
- Kermit "Kim" Roosevelt, Jr. (February 16, 1916 – June 8, 2000), Special Activities Division political action officer
August 19, 1953, ROYALISTS OUST MOSSADEGH – ARMY SEIZES HELM; Moscow Says U. S. Aided Shah's CoupThe New York Times, August 20, 1953, Teheran, Iran, by Kennett Love, “ARMY SEIZES HELM; Ex-Premier and Cabinet Flee Mobs -- Zahedi Pledges Reforms Iranians Battle in Teheran as Premier Flees ROYALISTS IN IRAN OUST MOSSADEGH - Iranians loyal to Shah Mohammed Riza Pahlevi, including Teheran civilians, soldiers and rural tribesmen, swept Premier Mohammed Mossadegh out of power today in a revolution and apparently had seized at least temporary control of the country.”
- The New York Times, August 20, 1953, Moscow, Soviet Union, "This time the weapon of subversive activity was directed against Iran, which did not wish to become the submissive slave of American monopolies, said Pravda. Pravda charged also that the United States had applied economic pressure to Iran and cited President Eisenhower's letter of June 29 refusing economic aid unless, according to the newspaper, Iran "agreed to accept proposals of foreign monopolies on the oil question."
August 20, 1953, DR. MOSSADEGH SURRENDERS BY PHONE Twenty-Four Hours after Fleeing MobThe New York Times, August 21, 1953, Teheran, Iran, by Kennett Love, “MOSSADEGH QUITS TEHERAN HIDEOUT; IS HELD FOR TRIAL - Dr. Mossadegh, who had eliminated all means of an orderly change in government and achieved dictatorial powers before his overthrow, telephoned General Zahedi at 6 P. M. offering to surrender. Dr. Mossadegh surrendered just twenty-four hours after he had fled his fortified home, which fell to Royalist attackers at the end of a two-hour street tank duel.”
August 22, 1953, Mobs Turn on Mossadegh; TANKS KEEP GAURD IN IRAN’S CAPITALThe New York Times, August 22, 1953, Baghdad, Iraq, (AP) “Shah Denounces Mossadegh; Iranian Mobs, Turning on Mossadegh, Release Their Pent-Up Hatred TANKS KEEP GUARD IN IRAN'S CAPITAL - The Shah of Iran declared tonight that Premier Mohammed Mossadegh was an "evil man.”
August 23, 1953, SHAH SOLEMNLY TOASTS ROOSEVELT; “I owe my throne to God, my people, my army - and to you!”Countercoup; The Struggle for the Control of Iran, 1979, by Kermit Roosevelt, page 199, “… Sunday at midnight, August 23, 1 Shahnivar, I took myself to the palace … Then the Shah motioned me to seat myself. The first words he said were spoken gravely, solemnly. “I owe my throne to God, my people, my army – and to you!” He picked up his glass and raised it, as if in a toast, to me. I raised mine in return, and we both drank. … After he (Zahedi) had gone, to my surprise, the Shah reached into his inside jacket pocket and pulled out a large, flat golden cigarette case. Holding it out to me, he asked, “Would you accept this as a souvenir of our recent adventure?” I stammered my thanks and stuffed it into my coat pocket.” forward IX “At the end of this true account, in the late summer of 1953, the Shah said to me truthfully, “I owe my throne to God, my people, my army – and to you!” By “you” he meant me and the two countries Great Britain and the United States – I was representing. We are all heroes.”
November 14, 1953, MOSSADEGH AS PRISONER STILL STIRS THE MASSES; Iranian Government Seeks to Dispose Of 'Myth' Before Changing PoliciesThe New York Times, November 15, 1953, Teheran, Iran, by Robert C. Doty, “MOSSADEGH AS PRISONER STILL STIRS THE MASSES; Iranian Government Seeks to Dispose Of 'Myth' Before Changing Policies. Emotion and reason waged war in the minds of most Iranians this week as Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh, the aged invalid who outraged reason but deeply stirred the nation's emotions during twenty-eight months as Premier, went on trial for rebellion.”
December 20, 1953, COURT MARTIAL NEARS VERDICT; Shah of Iran Asks Mercy for Mossadegh’s LifeThe New York Times, December 21, 1953, Teheran, Iran (AP) Shah Asks Mercy for Mossadegh as Court-Martial Nears a Verdict; SHAH BIDS COURT SPARE MOSSADEGH
August 4, 1956, Mossadegh Ends Prison Term for Plot to Overthrow Shah ; PLACED UNDER HOUSE ARREST IN WALLED VILLAGEThe New York Times, August 4, 1956, Teheran, Iran, (AP) “Mossadegh Ends Term For Plot to Oust Shah - Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh, former Premier of Iran, walked out of jail today, a free man after three years of solitary confinement. He was sentenced on charges of attempting to overthrow the Shah in 1953.”
January 21, 1962, Iran Police Clash with Pro-Mossadegh Students; MOSSADEGH DENIED CONTACT WITH OUTSIDE WORLDThe New York Times, January 21, 1962, Teheran, Iran, “Iran Police Arrest 300 in Clash With Pro-Mossadegh Students; Youths in Teheran Demand Premier Quit--Security Measures Tightened Police Counter-Attack”
- August 4, 1956 “… he was kept under house arrest in Ahmadabad and was denied contact with the outside world."
March 5, 1967, MOHAMMED MOSSADEGH IS DEAD; Former Prime Minister of Iran was 86; Nationalized Oil Industry in '51, Stirring StormThe New York Times, March 5, 1967, Teheran, Iran, (AP) “Mohammed Mossadegh Is Dead; Former Premier of Iran Was 86; Nationalized Oil Industry in '51, Stirring Storm--Jailed as Plotter Against Shah”
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